By Prof. Phillip Bonner
The idea that Caucasians inhabited both China and the North American continent thousands of years ago has never been acceptable to the anthropological establishment. But the discovery of blond mummies in China has caused a re-evaluation of this thesis, and whole new patterns of migration between the continents are now considered distinct possibilities.
In April 1994 the science magazine Discover published an epoch-making article called “The Mummies of Xinjiang.” Later advertisements for the magazine were to read “What are 4,000-year-old blond mummies doing in China?”
The article contains pictures of blond and red-haired mummies up to 4,000 years old from the Chinese province of Xinjiang.
The world-famous geneticist Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University, author of History and Geography of Human Genes, speculated that these were a few stray Europeans who somehow wandered thousands of miles east into China.
In the popular press there were a number of articles expressing astonishment that blond people had somehow wandered so far east so early.
Actually, some scholars who had taken the trouble to learn Chinese, Mongolian, Sogdian and other Oriental languages, as well as explorers and archeologists who had done research in Central Asia and China, had long ago figured out that white people from Europe played a major role in China since the beginning of civilization.
In 1939, Oxford University Press put out a book called Early Empires of Central Asia by William McGovern which goes into great detail about the role of white people in China and Central Asia. He quotes repeatedly from Chinese, Turkish and other historical records.
The blond mummies of Xinjiang are only the tip of the iceberg. There are skeletons, mummies, face masks, paintings, sculptures and vast historical records proving that white people have played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning.
Around 4,000 B.C. the horse was first domesticated by blond Indo-Europeans living in and around what is now Ukraine. They left the valleys and started a new way of life, that of the steppe nomad. These people had vast herds of cattle, goats, sheep and horses. They invented wagons and carts around 3,000 B.C. This nomadic group made the world’s first mobile homes, later called kibitkas, a huge wagon with far-apart wheels that carried a home constructed of wood and felt. These were pulled by up to 20 oxen.
From the riverbanks of Ukraine and Russia, this wandering tribe now spread out over the virtually uninhabited steppes, or grassland prairies. Their herds of animals provided them with meat, milk, clothing and felt. Their wagons provided them with mobility. They quickly spread in every direction through the steppes. Of note is a band of steppe between 50 and 600 miles wide and 6,000 miles long which stretches all the way from Central Europe to Manchuria, near the Pacific Ocean. Blond people speaking Indo-European languages quickly occupied this vast area.
Every several hundred years or so the steppe belt was hit with a drought. Animals and people started dying of hunger and thirst. This caused massive migrations out of the steppes. The first recorded time this occurred was around 2,000 B.C., when vast numbers of nomads poured out of the steppes and invaded Europe, Egypt, the Middle East, India and northwestern China.
Nordics just east of the Ural Mountains had invented the chariot just a hundred years earlier. This gave them a huge advantage in warfare. The similarities between chariots from the Caucusus Moun tains and China are astonishing. Chariots were associated with the ruling class in China as in Egypt, the Middle East, India and elsewhere.
In Gansu province, China, there has been found painted pottery, almost identical to pottery artifacts found in Tripolye, Ukraine and other places in between these locales. Pottery from Anau, Turk menistan, Susa, Iran and Trialeti, Romania are almost identical to pottery from the Honan and Gansu provinces of China.
Many words in ancient Chinese were borrowed from Indo-European, including words for chariot, horse, warrior, prince, spear, axe and ruler/emperor. Even the Chinese character for king comes from the west. In modern Chinese it is “wang,” but scholars tell us that the ancient Chinese pronounced it “gwang.” If we add the character for “white” to the character for “king” we get a character that is the symbol for “emperor.” If we add the character for “man” to the character for “white,” we have a character which means “duke.” In other words, a white man is a duke, and a white king is an emperor. The common people were called “the black-haired people.”
Chinese history is an endless repetition of the same pattern. In vad ers from the steppes conquer China, become Sinicized, intermarry with Chi nese, and become weak. Then they are conquered by a new wave of invasions from the steppes.
Even today frescoes of white people can be found in Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia. They have blue eyes and are said to be “arhats” or followers of Buddha.
The Mongols who conquered China and much of Eurasia in the 1200s were led by men who sometimes had red hair and blue or gray eyes. Marco Polo, who met Genghis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan in person, describes him as being “white and ruddy.”
From 1644 to 1911, China was ruled by a Eurasian people called the Manchus. There were only one million Manchus. They spoke a language related to Turkish and Mongolian. They usually had white skins. Their features were a mixture of white and mongoloid. Boris Yeltsin, Lenin, Kemal Ataturk and the WWII Japanese Prime Minister Tojo are examples of this Eurasian type. The Manchus took Chinese wives and concubines. Large numbers of Chinese slaves and farmers immigrated to Manchuria. Today there are hardly any Manchus left, even in Manchuria. Under the Manchus the Chinese Empire reached its greatest territorial expansion, and included Man churia, Mongolia, Tibet, Xijiang as well as Taiwan and parts of Kazakhstan, Siberia, Korea, Burma and Vietnam at various times.
There are traces of the Caucasian race among the elite all over northeast Asia. The famous Japanese writer Yukio Mishima, who committed hara-kiri in a right-wing protest, relates in his autobiography that when he was a child he had blond hair. “My hair was blondish for a long time, but they kept putting olive oil on it until it finally turned black.”
Chinese metallurgy was derived from the Andronovo Indo-Europeans of the Minusinsk area of Siberia and from the copper experts of the White Indo-European Yueh-Chih of the Qichia culture of Gansu and Qinghai provinces.
Casual observers have long commented that American Indians appear to occupy an intermediate position between the white race and the Mongoloid race. Some tribes could pass for Chinese. Others seem to resemble Caucasoid peoples in Western Asia.
The general rule is that all American Indians have blood type O. However, there are two exceptions which point to the former presence of Caucasians. One is the blond and red-haired mummies from Peru, some of whom are A, B or AB. The other is among speakers of Na-Dene languages, who originated in the American northwest and western Canada.
Na-Dene speakers often are type A, which is very common in western Europe.
Amazingly, evidence has recently surfaced of Caucasoids having lived in the same vicinity, in Washington, Idaho, Montana and Nevada, around 7,000-2,500 B.C.
The magazine Archaeology, in its January/February 1997 edition, featured an article on Kennewick Man, a Caucasian who lived along the Columbia River in Washington State about 8,400 years ago. Anthropologist James Chatters told the New York Times, “I’ve got a white guy with a stone point in him . . . That’s pretty exciting, I thought I had a pioneer.” But then Catherine J. Mac Millan, professor emeritus of physical anthropology at Central Washington University, looked at the bones. “He’s a Caucasian,” she said, “but this type of arrowhead went out of use over 4,000 years ago.” It was dated to what is called the Cascade Phase, 7,000-2,500 B.C.
Some of the bones were sent to R. Ervin Taylor Jr. of the University of California, Riverside, for radiocarbon dating. The amazing result of the tests was that the bones dated to around 6,400 B.C.
Then, the federal government stepped in. Because of the age of the bones they were declared to be American Indian remains. Federal law prohibits desecration of American Indian remains, so the Corps of Engineers declared that the bones must be turned over to local Indian tribes for reburial. Scientists were ordered to stop all tests. Kennewick Man is now locked up under armed guard at the old Hanford, Washington nuclear waste depository. No one is allowed to study the bones or even look at them.
It’s ironic that Hanford, Washington, was chosen, as it once housed what was rumored to be the largest atomic bomb factory in the world. Perhaps Kennewick Man has explosive potential as well. On October 16, 1996 eight scientists filed suit against the Army Corps of Engineers in Federal District Court in Portland, Oregon, where the corps’ North Pacific division is headquartered, seeking access to the skeleton and to bar its reburial. Among those suing were Dennis J. Stanford, chairman of the Smithsonian’s anthropology department. He has seen the remains and knows them to be Caucasian.
A 1994 study by D. Gentry Steele and Joseph F. Powell, physical anthropologists at Texas A & M University, compared European, East Asian and American Indian skeletons. They concluded that American skeletons dated before 6,500 B.C. were somewhat like European skeletons, and more recent American Indians were somewhat like East Asians.
The federal government has prohibited scientists, reporters and even state legislators from having access to two other ancient Caucasians, one from Pyramid Lake and the other from Spirit Cave in Nevada. Scientists wanted to do DNA tests on 10,000-year-old reddish human hairs dug up in Montana, but, instead, the hair was turned over to local Indians for reburial. Another priceless treasure recovered in Buhl, Idaho was recently secretly buried by Indians, closing off forever any chance for scientists to study it. It was one of the best preserved skeletons on earth from around 6,000 B.C. In a letter published in the March/April 1997 edition of Archaeology, George A. Agogino, distinguished research professor emeritus at Eastern New Mexico University, wrote, “In the instance of another set of remains, from Buhl, Idaho; here was a rare paleoindian, very ancient American skeleton, of which only roughly a dozen are known, that the local Indian group secretly buried under state law . . .
“Had I murdered Jimmy Hoffa, one good way of disposal of the remains, after having them reduced to a skeleton, would be to tell some Indian group that the remains were definitely Indian and should be disposed of by them under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA).”
Spirit Cave Man was found in 1940 by two Nevada state archaeologists. State Museum Curator Donald R. Tuohy writes, “This find represents the adaptation to desert oases which led to agriculture in several places on earth just after this time and may be significant in understanding the emergence of civilization.
“Complex textiles in Spirit Cave demonstrate a degree of sophistication in material technology that rivaled any on the planet at the time, and the preservation of these textiles exceeds any of comparable age.
“This is a world class discovery of significance to the understanding of humanity’s origins on a planetary scale.”
Carbon dating puts the Spirit Cave mummy at 9,415 years old. Dr. Douglas Owsley of the Smithsonian Institution examined both Kennewick Man and the Spirit Cave mummy and determined that both were Caucasians.
According to the legends of the Paiute Indians, when they arrived in the Spirit Cave area, it was inhabited by white giants with red hair. The Paiute “outsmarted” them by luring them into a cave and then setting fire to brush stacked around the entrance, burning or suffocating them to death. Nonetheless, the Paiute insist that the Spirit Cave mummy is one of their ancestors, and they want him buried without any more scientific tests whatsoever. Scientists are eager to do DNA tests to determine to what people the mummy is really related.
The hair on the Spirit Cave mummy is reddish brown. All of these ancient Americans resemble the modern white inhabitants of the American Northwest more than they do American Indians.
Amazingly, the latest research among the most advanced linguists in the world also points to unexpected connections between some languages spoken by white people and others spoken by American Indians. Merritt Ruhlen, of Stanford University, in a recent book called On the Origin of Languages, describes a new language super-family called Dene-Caucasian. “Dene” is the Navajo word for “Navajo.” This super language family includes Basque, the Athabaskan languages of Canada, Chechen and other Caucasus Mountains languages, a Siberian language called Ket, Tibetan, Chinese, the Alaskan language Tlingit, and Navajo.
The Dene-Caucasian people moved east from Spain all the way to Idaho around 8,000-6,000 B.C. Their ancestors could have been the people who painted bison in the caves of France and Spain around 30,000 B.C. In most areas they were replaced by later invaders. But isolated pockets of Dene-Caucasian re mained in northern Spain, the northern Caucusus, Siberia, China, and North America.
One of the earliest proofs of the existence of Caucasians in the Far East is in China, northeast of Beijing. In 1906 Japanese archaeologist Ryuzo Torii dug up a clay head at Niu Ho Liang. The head has Caucasian features, and is pink, with blue stones for eyes.The Japanese date it at 5,000 B.C. Everyone else dates it to around 3,500 B.C. Artifacts of similar cultures have been found all across far northern China, Mongolia, southern Siberia and northern Xinjing. It is speculated that these people spoke Altaic languages, the ancestors of Turkic, Mongolian, Manchu, and to some extent Korean, Japanese and Ainu.
Over 100 years ago an Englishman, A.H. Savage Landor, visited the lands of the Ainu in northern Japan and islands farther north now belonging to Russia. He wrote a book called Alone With the Hairy Ainu. He says that on the island of Shikotan, “one or two of the children had very fair hair.” Along the northeast coast of Yezo I came across several Ainu adults who had reddish hair and beard; and in the Kurile Islands, at Shikotan, several of the children had light auburn hair hanging in large loose curls and rather flaxy in texture . . .” Further, “Red hair, or hair with red shades in it, is common among the Ainu of the northeast coast of Yezo [now called Hokkaido], and also among the Kurilsky Ainu of Shikotan [Kurile Islands]. I saw some Ainu who, contrary to the rule, had red hair.”
Soviet anthropologist Levin also reported reddish hair and blue eyes among the Ainu and some natives of nearby parts of Siberia.
There was a tribe related to the Manchus called the Oroch, who lived in the vicinity of what is now Vladivostock, a Russian city on the Pacific Ocean near the North Korean and Chinese borders. The Chinese called these people Ch’ih Mao Tze, which means Red Hair People.
Strange as it may seem, the people of Mongolia were once non-Mongoloid. McGovern writes, “Thus, for example, in southern Siberia, in the region now inhabited by the Buriat Mongols, all of whom are now typically Mongoloid in appearance, archaeological work has brought to light a number of skeletons dating from an early period. All of these skeletons were markedly long-headed, in striking contrast with the modern Mon gol skulls, the great majority of which are round-headed. It is therefore, definitely established that in the very heart of Mongolian domain the characteristically round-headed race of the present day was preceded by a race of a very different type.
“So far archaeology has thrown little light on the problem of the coloration of this early long-headed race; but the Chinese records would lead us to believe that this early population had ‘red hair, green eyes, and white faces,’ and we have every reason to believe that this description is not greatly inaccurate. In this connection, however, it must be borne in mind that this long-headed and presumably blond type is known to have inhabited not Mongolia proper, but southern Siberia immediately north of Mongolia. It is quite possible, in fact probable, that this early, blond, long-headed type spread into northern Mon golia, and it is not at all impossible that in very early prehistoric times this type was predominant all over the Mongolian Plateau.”
Speaking of another people of the Chinese borderlands, McGovern states, “It so happens, however, that the Chinese have a tradition that the ancient Kirghis were decidedly blond in appearance, or, as the Chinese say, were tall with white skin, red hair and green eyes.”
Writing of the area where the blond mummies were found, he remarks, “To the west of Lake Lopnur was the ‘country of thirty-six principalities,’ or of the numerous city states. As we know al ready, the inhabitants of this region were practically all Indo-Europeans, the Wusun (which is Chinese for ‘descendants of the Crow’), and the Yueji (Moon People), and from the Turanian Huns in that they practiced agriculture and lived in walled towns and villages . . .
“To the north of Kashgaria lay the Tien Shan or Celestial mountains and beyond this Zungaria or the Ili Basin, still occupied by the Wusun.” According to Chinese legends, the first emperors, called “sons of heaven” originally came from the Tien Shan, or Mountains of Heaven, “which were surrounded by red-haired Indo-Europeans.”
He continues, “From the statement in Han Shu, 96a, 18b, that ‘From Dayuan westwards all the inhabitants have deep set eyes and are hairy,’ it is obvious that all the inhabitants of Turkestan at this period were predominantly Caucasoid in race.”
“Of far greater interest than either of the two above mentioned legends are the stories told concerning the intimate relationships existing between the ‘Northern Barbarians’ and the ancestors of the Chinese Emperors of the House of Jou (two periods—1122-770 and 770-256 B.C.) The Jou dynasty is generally regarded as the most glorious of all the Chinese ruling houses. Not only did the monarchs of this house rule over China for a far longer period than the members of any other dynasty, but it was during this period that the Five Classics were compiled. Also at this time the great sages, such as Confucius, Mencius and Laodse (Lao-tse) lived and wrote their works.” Portraits of Confucius usually show him as having Caucasian features.
“Considering this fact, it is rather surprising to find that the House of Jou owed its early fame to its connection with the wild barbarians of the north and west. When the ancestors of the Jou dynasty first definitely emerge upon the horizon of history, we find them to be feudal lords of a small community in the extreme northwest portion of China. In this region they were surrounded on all sides by various tribes of Northern Barbarians (who are called on this occasion Rung and Di).
“It will be remembered that the Yueji were nomads speaking an Indo-European language and living in Northwestern China [the present province of Gansu] and Northeastern Kashgaria.”
We find Mencius speaking of Wen Wang, the real founder of the Jou dynasty, as ‘a western barbarian.’ ”
A Hunnish general who took the Chinese capital Loyang in 311 A.D. was a hairy albino named Liu Yao, and Shi Huang Di, the emperor who built the Great Wall of China, was of western barbarian origin.
He writes: “. . . the second emperor of the Wei dynasty (386-535 A.D.), of Sienbi origin, had a long, yellow beard.”
The Chinese chronicles specifically state that the emperors came from a land “where the women’s skins were white.”
In his book Central Asia: Turk menia Before the Achaemenids, Vadim Masson tells us that there was a culture called the Tien Shan Culture. He explains that this is a variant of the Andronovo Culture, which was composed of white Indo-Europeans. It occupied a large area of Kazakhstan and parts of Siberia.
Jessica Rawson writes in a 1980 book called Ancient China, Art and Archae ology, about the incredible similarity between chariots in China and the Caucas. We now know that the chariots from both places came from the Ural Mountains area. From page 49: “Chariot burials: communications with western Asia: There is one further type of site excavated at Anyang and other parts of north China that provides important evidence for the late Shang period, the chariot burial. The chariot itself and two bronze items associated with it, a ‘jingle’ and a particular knife or dagger raise the question of outside influence. Although contacts between China and western Asia were rare in the early period, the introduction of the chariot suggests that the issue cannot be ignored.
“Chariots were apparently not known in China before the beginning of the Anyang phase of the Shang dynasty, circa 1300 B.C. The chariots of that date, which were evidently buried in connection with royal funerals, bear some resemblance to those found in burials in the Caucasus. They are similar in three distinctive respects: both types have a low, open-fronted box in which to ride, wheels with a large number of spokes, and felloes, or wheel rims, made of two bent pieces of wood. Even the burial of the chariot is a shared practice.”
The September 1996 issue of Antiquity had an interesting article about white people who lived just north of Beijing (Peking) in ancient times.
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen of UC Berkeley studied the scholarly literature in Chinese, Turkish, Russian, German and English and reports to us about Caucasians in China: “Europoids in East Asia”:
“As the account of the massacre of the Hsiung-nu Chieh in Chao in 349 A.D. shows, the great majority of that people were Europoids. When Jan Min made himself lord of Chao in northern Honan, which until then had been ruled by the Chieh, he ordered the extermination of all Chieh. In and around Yeh more than 200,000 were slain. The Chieh soldiers were recognized by their high noses and full beards.
“Uchida Gimpu and I, independently of each other, adduced this characterization of the Chieh as proof of the existence of a Europoid group among the Hsiung-nu in the fourth century.” At any rate, by the middle of the fourth century there were Europoids among the Hsiung-nu.
“ ‘Liu Yuan, the Hsiung-nu conqueror of Lo-yang [the capital of China] in 311, was 184 centimeters tall; there were red strains in his long beard. An anecdote in the Shih-shuo hsin-yu, compiled by Liu Yi-ch’ing in the first half of the fifth century, shows that the Hsien-pei, who are supposed to have spoken a Mongolian language, were racially not Mongoloid. When in 324 Emperor Ming, whose mother, nee Hsun, came from the Hsien-pei kingdom of Yen, heard about the rebellion of Wang Tun, he rode into the camp of the rebels to find out their strength. He rode in full gallop through the camp. His puzzled enemies thought he was a Hsien-pei because of his yellow beard.
“The T’ang period falls outside the framework of the present studies. I mention only in passing the Europoid ‘Tokharians,’ depicted with their red hair and green eyes on the wall paintings in northern Hsin-chiang . . . The barbarian horsemen from Yu-chou in a poem by Li Po, probably Turks, had green eyes. Even later the Chinese know of Mongol Huang t’ou Shih-wei, ‘Shih-wei with the yellow heads,’ and Genghis Khan and his descendants had blond or reddish hair and deep-blue eyes.
“Yen Shih-ku’s often quoted descriptions of the Wu-sun, neighbors and hereditary enemies of the Hsiung-nu, seems to prove that at one time the Wu-sun were preponderantly Europoid: ‘Of all the barbarians of the western lands the Wu-sun look the most peculiar. Those barbarians who have cerulean eyes and red beards and look like Mi monkeys are their descendants.’
“Already at a time when only a small number of skulls from the territory held by the Wu-sun were known, they were recognized as Europoid . . . As late as the third century some Wu-sun were almost purely Europoid.
“The paleoanthropological work in Hsin-chiang has barely begun. It is, therefore, all the more remarkable that some of the skulls collected by the Sino-Swedish Expedition in 1928 and 1934 and studied by C.H. Hjortsjo and A. Walander point to Europoids of the northern type in the ancient population. Around the beginning of our era, Europoids of the Nordic type lived, thus both in the Semirech’e [Kazakhstan-China border region near the Tien Shan] and Hsin-chiang.”
Writing about the Mongols, Harold Lamb says of Genghis Khan (p. 37): “His ancestors, it is true, had been Borjigun, Blue-eyed Men, legendary heroes of the steppes.” Genghis Khan had red hair and gray eyes. Ogadai had gray eyes. Subotai, who conquered Cathay (China) had a long, reddish beard. Marco Polo described Kublai Khan as being very ruddy. The Arab writer Rashid ed Din wrote that people were surprised Kublai Khan had dark hair and eyes, because most of Genghis Khan’s descendants had reddish hair and blue eyes.
Professor Eberhard, an expert on ethnic groups in China, has this to say: “In 1980 Chinese archaeologists found in a tomb in the eastern part of Sinkiang province a female with red-blond hair. The tomb was dated from approximately 3,200 years before our time . . . Indo-Europeans . . . according to investigations of several sinologists, even reached the heart of north China sometime around 2000 B.C. or somewhat later . . . Archeological findings from the time of the Shang dynasty (1600-1050 B.C.) give us a different picture. Excavations of royal tombs at An-yang, a site that perhaps was the last capital of the Shang or at least the burial place of their leaders, have brought out many skeletons, some of which seem to belong to non-Mongol races. Although the excavations were done around 1935, the anthropological results are still not fully published, perhaps because the findings were somewhat embarrassing, just as Europeans would feel embarrassed if remnants of a black race were found in the midst of Europe (and there is a possibility that people with dark skin once inhabited parts of Europe). There are also rumors concerning excavations in Korea during the time of Japanese rule, namely that remains of non-Mongol people were discovered there, who were related to races found in Siberia.”
Until recently, Chinese archeologists had a bad habit of throwing away skeletons and looking only for artifacts.
Archaeology Mar-Apr 1995; Anthony, David W. and Vinogradov, Nikolai B. “Birth of the Chariot: Excavations east of the Ural Mountains reveal traces of the first two-wheeled high-performance vehicles.”
Archaeology, Sept./Oct., 1996, “Oldest North American Mummy,” by Lara J. Asher. This reddish hair was carbon dated at 7420 B.C. It was stored at the Nevada State Museum in Carson City until it was confiscated by the federal government.
Feddersen, Martin, Chinesisches Kunst gewerbe, Berlin, Klinkhardt & Bierman Verlag, 1939; Ridley, Michael, Treasures of China, N.Y., Arco Publishing Co., 1973; and Childe, V. Gordon, The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European Origins, N.Y., Barnes & Noble, 1993.
Karlgren, Bernhard, Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese, N.Y., Dover, 1991.
Eberhard, Wolfram, China’s Minorities: Yesterday and Today, Belmont, Calif., Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1982; Eberhard, Wolfram, A History of China, Berkeley, Univ. of Calif. Press, 1977; and Ssu-ma, Ch’ien, Shih Chi Hsuan, Hong Kong, 1976.
Jisl, Lumir, Mongolei, Kunst und Tradition, Praha, Artia, 1960.
Bellonci, Maria, The Travels of Marco Polo, N.Y., Facts on File Publications, 1984.
Matson, R.G. and Coupland, G. The Pre-History of the Northwest Coast, Academic Press, Toronto, Canada.
Mishima, Yukio, Confessions of a Mask, N.Y., New Directions Publishing Co., 1958.
Jettmar, Karl, Art of the Steppes, N.Y., Crown Publishers, 1967; and Chung, Kwang-chih, The Archaeology of Ancient China, London, Yale University Press, 1986.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. and Cavalli-Sforza, Francesco, The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution, Sidney, Addison-Westley Co., 1995.
The Courier, 1-16-97, Finley, Tim, “Feds Blocking Research: Kennewick Man Was Not Alone.”
Mao, P’ei-ch’i, Sui Yueh, Ho Shan, Taipei, 1978.
Akademia Nauk SSSR, Institute Etnografi; edited by Levin, M.G. and Potapov, L.P., The Peoples of Siberia, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1964.
Czaplicka, M.A., Aboriginal Siberia, A Study in Social Anthropology, Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1969.
Sekai Zenshi, Tokyo, Kodansha, 1994; 1953 Encyclopedia Britannica, “Confucius.”
Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J., The World of the Huns, Studies in Their History and Culture, Berkeley, University of Calif. Press, 1973.
Polo, Marco, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Vol. I, translated and edited, with notes, by Colonel Sir Henry Yule, London, John Murray, 1929; also Michel’s Joinville; D’Ohsson, II; Erdmann.
Eberhard, China’s Minorities . . . , op. cit.